Liaoning Province and Zhangzidao context
Liaoning Province has a population of 43.9 million and a land area of 148 thousand km2. Liaoning owns a coastline of about 2 000km, which is 1/9 of the total of mainland China. It also has about 150 000 km2 sea area, including 78 300 km2 in Bohai Sea and 71 900 km2 in north Yellow Sea. And Zhangzidao mariculture are is located in north Yellow Sea, within the jurisdiction of Liaoning Prov.
Like Shandong Province, the coastal sea has provided ample space for marine aquaculture in Liaoning Prov., whose seafood production (3.96 million t in 2014) and its total revenue ranks the fifth among all the provinces in China. In 2014, the total marine aquaculture production in Liaoning Province was about 3 million t, at a total value of 42 billion Yuan RMB. Liaoning has relatively high levels of employment in agriculture, and in catch fishery and aquaculture.
Production and producers
Liaoning Prov. Produces 17.5% of seaweed, 17.7% of bivalves, 38.6% of sea cucumbers and other mariculture seafood in China.
Liaoning Province Marine Aquaculture Production 2014
||Others (incl. sea cucumber)
|Liaoning Province (t)
|% of China
Zhangzidao Group Co., Ltd (ZZD) is the sole operator of the sea area around Zhangzidao Island. The company was set up in 1958, and it operates a seafood producing chain including hatchery, growout and processing instalments, with a registered capital of 711 million RMB. The company has a total asset of 3.3 billion RMB, 5000 staff and 19 sub-companies.
ZZD is one of the main aquaculture and fishery companies in China, and it is the biggest base for aquaculture and sea ranching of high-valued seafood in north Yellow Sea. It operates a 2000 km2 ocean farm, producing about 60 thousand t of scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and abalone Haliotis discus hannai annually.
[Main products of Zhangzidao Fishery Group (from top left: Japanese scallop, sea cucumber, abalone, sea urchin, conch and clam]
Capacity of ZZD company for sea ranching and aquaculture:
- Total area of ZZD marine farm 2,000 km2, from inter-tidal to a depth of 50m
- Mainline product – scallop ranching area 80,000 km2 in 2010, total seeds released 7.1 billion
- Scallop total production 495 million tons, total value 905 million RMB
- Average productivity of scallops is 2,340kg/ha
- Six hatcheries, producing 3.5 billion scallop seeds, 6 million sea cucumbers juveniles, 10 million abalone and 20 million sea urchin seeds
Aquaculture Development and Related Issues
Following the environmental protection regulations and ecological carrying capacity assessment, ZZD ranks habitat conservation first and resource exploitation second, by highlighting natural selection and natural growth, and fisheries sustainability. Relying on technology innovation and best practice, the company has developed a system of management:
Strategic planning →Investigation →Use of eugenic varieties→ Seeding density control→ Manipulation of environment→ Ecosystem monitor→ Fallow rotation→ Safety control→ Harmless harvest
To implement ecosystem-based aquaculture and sea ranching, ZZD has established an integrated environment and water quality monitoring programme, including:
- Marine environment monitor. Monthly test for all water quality index incl. microbiology and heavy metals
- Ocean Watch systems. In collaboration with several research institutes in China
- On 6 June, 2009, an Survey Buoy System was set up and began to collect environmental data
- The Yellow Sea Marine Watch and Research System consists of five sets of surface buoys and three sets of under-water buoys, an automatic weather station and two land-based data receivers. This system was under operation since June 2009